Influenza Pandemic Preparation and Response: A Citizen's Guide
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by Dr. David L. Heymann World Health Organization, Executive Director, Communicable Diseases
Most public health specialists from around the world believe that there will be another human influenza pandemic, a pandemic caused by an avian influenza virus that can cause human illness and has mutated to a form that spreads from person to person.
Tal evento aleatório já aconteceu três vezes durante o século passado, causando três diferentes pandemias de influenza.Desde 2003, três principais classes de vírus influenza aviário - H5, H7 e H9 - têm causado infecções humanas esporádicas, e devido a instabilidade do vírus influenza, qualquer um desses vírus são passíveis de sofrerem mutações que podem levar a uma pandemia humana.
Such a random event has occurred three times during the past century, causing three different influenza pandemics.
Since 2003 three major classes of avian influenza virus - H5, H7 and H9 - have caused sporadic human infections, and because of the instability of the influenza virus, any one of these viruses is thought to be capable of mutating in such as way as to cause a human pandemic.
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Presently the most widespread of these viruses is the H5N1 avian influenza virus, or simply H5N1. Since an H5N1 outbreak in chickens in Hong Kong was first reported to infect humans in 1997, the H5N1 virus has spread in poultry populations throughout Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa and Europe causing a pandemic of influenza in chickens; and occasional human infections in persons who have come into contact with infected chickens.
Desde 2003 foram relatadas somente 300 infecções humanas com H5N1, todas causando doenças severas, com uma taxa de mortalidade de 61%.Duas das três epidemias de influenza do século passado - uma que ocorreu entre 1957-1958, e uma in 1968-1969 - ainda estão na memória de muitas pessoas vivas atualmente.
Since 12003 there have been just over 300 reported human infections with H5N1, all having caused severe illness, with an overall death rate of 61%.
Two of the three influenza pandemics of the past century - one that occurred from 1957-1958, and one in 1968-1969 - are still in the memory of many persons living today.
Estas pandemias espalham-se rapidamente por todo o mundo, causando danos sérios à saúde de pessoas de todas as idades, absenteísmo acentuado na escola e trabalho, e 2,5 milhões de mortes estimadas, a maioria pessoas acima de 60 anos.
These pandemics spread rapidly throughout the world, causing severe illness in persons of all ages, massive absenteeism from school and the workplace, and an estimated 2.5 million deaths, mostly in persons over the age of 60 years.
A terceira epidemia - entre 1918 e 1919 - causou estimadas 40 milhões de mortes em pessoas de todas as idades. Artigos publicados em revistas médicas e científicas da época falam da severidade das doenças e mortes, com uma quebra de rotina de saúde e de serviços mortuários na maioria das grandes cidades, com o ferramentos de serviços públicos de saúde e quarentena e isolamento das pessoas infectadas ou expostas a pessoas infectadas numa tentativa de interromper a disseminação da infecção.
The third pandemic - that of 1918-1919 - caused an estimated 40 million deaths in persons of all ages. Articles published in scientific and medical journals of the time speak of severe illness and death, with a breakdown of routine health and mortuary services in almost all major cities, closure of public gathering places, and quarantine and isolation of those infected or exposed to infected persons in an attempt to stop the spread of infection.
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Recent examination of records from the years 1918-1919 in many cities across the United States has shown that communities that put into practice social distancing measures such as closure of schools and public gathering places before infections were first detected, were able to maintain lower levels of infection than others.
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Those persons at greatest risk were those who lived closely together in confined spaces, such as men serving in the military.
During the inter-pandemic period since 1968, six levels of alert for pandemic influenza have been defined by the World Health Organization in order to best describe the pandemic risk: phase 1 and 2 during which no new influenza virus is infecting humans: and phases 3 to 6 when there is human infection with a new influenza virus - phase 3 when there is no human to human transmission to phase 6 when there is increased and sustained transmission of the new influenza virus in human populations.
This article is quite aslruedsy written for those of us that like to really think. The particular points you make appear intelligent and well-defined. Your perception of this topic is much like mine. Thank you.
The world is currently at phase 3 - a new (avian) influenza virus, H5N1, that occasionally infects humans and causes severe illness, but that is not capable of sustained human to human transmission.
Should the H5N1 virus mutate in such a way that it can readily transmit from human to human in a limited geographic area, a collective international response would be made in an attempt to contain the outbreak by stopping human to human transmission.
The objective of such a containment activity would be to circle the focus of human infection by using an antiviral medicine, and/or a vaccine should one be available, in all persons with the potential of exposure to the H5N1 virus.
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Such a containment activity would be conducted under the International Health Regulations (2005), an international law that requires countries to work together collectively in assessing and responding to any public health emergency of international concern, such as the current threat of an H5N1 pandemic.
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The International Health Regulations (2005) came into effect on 15 June 2007, four years after the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The worldwide response to SARS, that was led by the World Health Organization where I work as head of the communicable disease programmes, permitted development of control strategies using information collected in real time by epidemiologists working in all affected countries.
Within five months the SARS outbreak was fully contained using these strategies, and the virus disappeared from human populations. Though a pandemic of influenza could not be contained using the same strategies, an attempt at early containment would require early detection of a focus of human to human transmission, and effective use of antiviral drugs and/or a vaccine to "ring fence" the outbreak and prevent further spread.
PS. Make friends with an Octopus rmndeis me, to make peace with my passed, make peace with what is, or to make the best of what isgoing on in life that isn't so good. An example might be; instead of avoiding what is and being fearful, have faith and pray and press on.Like being understanding, of where someone is coming from. If they make a remark that makes you feel hurt, understand it is coming from fear and forgive them for it.If it is jealousy, feelings of lack or not enough, it is coming from what is called, fear. So we need to understand and let go of the little stings in life and continue to love, what one could call the octopus.I am sure there is more to ponder about thisheadline of, make friends with an Octopus.I love what ainelivia found in a book had to say.God Bless You and Yours!!!
Because containment has never before been tried as a measure to prevent or slow the spread of an influenza pandemic, the success of this strategy cannot be predicted.
If containment activities did not cover an area wide enough to stop transmission, it would be only a matter of weeks or months until the virus had spread throughout the world.
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We are all vulnerable to the risk of pandemic influenza no matter where live, work or go to school.
The most important public health measure at present, however, has nothing to do with human infections.
I had a flock that I had raised from chkcis that produced 7 Roos and three hens, so I got rid of all of the Roos because they were just too aggressive towards the females and fought constantly! After getting rid of the Roos, I put in a divider because i planned on getting more! Soon after I rescued two Black Cochin bantams, and what I was told was a female Porcelain d'Uccle. They were all malnourished scrawny looking things! When I introduced them to my older birds I was in the coop with them sitting. At first the newbies sat on my shoulder, but when I left, I divided them, letting only the newbies have run of the coop with some of the run and the older girls on the other side with food and water. When they would go in at night their was no fighting because the newer ones had already taken a spot on the roost. Put them all together, they established pecking order, but gently!Not 2 weeks later I ended up rescuing two more D'uccle hens! These were in better condition then the others, but their previous owner had no idea what they were doing. Anyways, I took the lowest in the pecking order and also the only original D'uccle I had left and put her with the newbies, letting only them have the run of the coop until everybody got used to each other. I have had no problems since!But yes there are birds that are just too aggressive! if you haven't tried what I did, letting the newer birds have run of the coop and part of the run with the older ones on the other side with no access to the coop and making sure the new ones go in first at night, then I suggest trying it, it might just work. If not, you may just have to make a separate coop for the new ones or simply give away the aggressive ones!
That measure is to prevent a pandemic by eliminating the H5N1 virus from chicken populations either by culling of infected flocks, or by preventing infection in flocks through various measures that include vaccination of chicks and limiting exposure of chickens to possible sources of infection.
(Sorry for the double post brain being slow)Another coutribnting factor is play style. There are players that play RPGs with collect loot and level being the primary motivating factor. The e-peen factor, if you will. I'd assert that those players will never care about how clever or interesting the quest is.There are other players who's primary motivator is, for lack of a better term, role-playing . Being that character experiencing the world doing the quests.And, of course, there are those players (like me) that fall somewhere in between. One night I may be into it and want to have a great quest series to take my mind off the world. Other nights I may just want to kill stuff and doing the quests is just a means to an end.So, for games that have the carrot as items and level having more quests is more important than having better quests.Maybe. Sheesh. I think I'll go back to lurking now.
As long as H5N1 continues to circulate anywhere in animals, there is a potential for the virus to mutate in such as way that it could cause a human pandemic.