Influenza Pandemic Preparation and Response: A Citizen's Guide
Small particles (less than 5 microns in size) hang in the air in rooms with poor circulation and may reach the lower respiratory tract more easily than large droplets.
This is the case for the bacteria that causes tuberculosis and may be controlled through the use of specialized ventilator masks.
Asymptomatic: Asymptomatic means there are no symptoms of disease.
A person is said to be asymptomatic if an illness or condition is present without symptoms; the person has recovered from an illness or condition and no longer has any symptoms; if he or she is healthy or has a particular illness or condition that usually does not produce symptoms.
Autopsy: An autopsy is a medical procedure consisting of a thorough examination performed on a body after death to evaluate disease or injury that may be present and to determine the cause and manner of a person's death.
CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Clinical attack rate: The percentage of the population that develops influenza with symptoms of infection.
Contact transmission: Refers to direct skin-to-skin contact between individuals and indirect contact with objects in the environment. Frequent hand washing and the use of disinfectants can control this mode of transmission.
Coroner: The Coroner investigates and determines the mode, manner and cause of death of decedents under the Coroner's jurisdiction.
Cremation: The practice of disposing of a corpse by burning.
This often takes place in a crematorium or crematory.
Isolation: Separation and restriction of movement of sick individuals.
Isolation is recommended for the time period the individual is deemed infectious.
Large droplet transmission: Large droplets are greater than 10 microns and contain viral particles.
They are dispersed by coughing, sneezing, or talking, and are deposited on the mucous membranes of other individuals (nose, mouth, eyes, etc.). Large droplets travel usually within a radius of 3 feet and hence are the basis for the infection control guideline of maintaining greater than a 3-foot radius between people.
Morbidity: The state of being diseased, the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, or the incidence of a disease: the number of new cases in a particular population during a particular time interval
Morgue: A room used for the storage of human remains
Mortality: The number of deaths (from a disease or in general) per 1000 people.
It is distinct from morbidity rate, which refers to the number of people who have a disease compared with the total number of people in a population.
Mortuary: (technical definition) A cold chamber used to keep the deceased from seriously decomposing; this practice exists for the sake of recognition of the deceased and to allow time to prepare for burial
Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs that is often caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or fungi.
Signs and symptoms include difficulty breathing and respiratory failure. Other complications may result as well, such as the lungs quickly filling with fluid and becoming very stiff, making it difficult or impossible to continue breathing on one's own.
If severe enough, you may not be able to stay alive without medical support, such as a ventilator or someone physically providing oxygen with an oxygen bag. Given the situation, ventilators will be in high demand and in short supply.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by avoiding stimuli associated with a traumatic event, re-experiencing the trauma, and hyper-arousal, such as increased vigilance
PPE: Personal protective equipment
Quarantine: Separation and restriction of movement of persons who are well, but may have been exposed to an infectious agent.
Quarantine typically lasts for as long as the disease incubation period (time between exposure and onset of symptoms) after the last known exposure.
Secondary infection: A secondary infection is an infection that occurs during or after treatment of another, already existing infection.
It may result from the treatment itself or from alterations in the immune system. For example, the development of bacterial pneumonia following a viral upper respiratory infection.
Social distancing: Methods to reduce the frequency and closeness of contact between people. Generally, social distancing refers to mass gatherings of people, but the same methods can be applied to home settings.
Transmission: The conveyance of infection from one person to another
Vital signs: Vital signs show an individual is alive. They include heart beat, breathing rate, temperature, and blood pressure.
These signs may be watched, measured, and monitored to check an individual's level of physical functioning. Normal vital signs change with age, sex, weight, exercise tolerance, and condition.
Normal ranges for the average healthy adult vital signs are
- Temperature: 97.8 - 99.1 F/average 98.6 F
- Breathing: 12 - 18 breaths per minute
- Pulse: 60 - 80 beats per minute (at rest)
- Blood Pressure:
- Systolic: less than 120 mm of mercury (mm Hg)
- Diastolic: less than 80 mm Hg